6. Will there also be flat rates?
The rate used for invoicing varies depending on the provider and the contract. For compliance with calibration law, invoicing based on kilowatt hours (kWh) will probably be the most common form of charging, because it represents the fairest and most transparent form of energy consumption. Strictly kWh-based rates are possible, as are rates that take into account the energy consumed, along with the amount of time the electric car is parked in front of the charging station. The latter should prevent highly frequented charging stations from being blocked for too long.
Flat rates have been successful for services like telephone, data rates and streaming for films and TV series. There are sure to be flat rates for charging as well. They will be particularly worthwhile for frequent drivers and for electric car owners who do not have charging options at home or at work.
Session fees, i.e. one-time set prices per charge, and purely time-based fees are no longer permissible. It will still be possible, however, to provide the electricity for free, as some supermarkets and stores already offer.